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diciembre 21, 2020

mango anthracnose disease

C. gloeosporioides is responsible for many diseases, also referred to as “anthracnose,” on many tropical fruits including banana, avocado, papaya, coffee, passion fruit, and others. On leaves, lesions start as small, angular, brown to black spots that can enlarge to form extensive dead areas. Anthracnose fungal disease is the mango's most damaging ailment, according to the University of Florida IFAS Extension. Postharvest diseases. Glomerella is the sexual stage of the fungus, and Colletotrichum the asexual stage. Symptoms of damage of anthracnose on melon. When all isolates were grouped according to symptom or host of origin, significant differences in lesion severity were demonstrated between isolates on avocado petioles in the glasshouse, with avocado pepper spot isolates being the most aggressive, followed by avocado anthracnose isolates then mango isolates from both anthracnose and pepper spot, respectively. They cause considerable losses if not managed properly. The disease is reported from Australia, Asia,Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, North, Central and South America. The lesions may drop out of leaves during dry weather. Colletotrichum asianum was only seen in isolates from mango, most frequently associated with both post-harvest anthracnose and pre-harvest pepper spot. A trial was conducted during 1985 and 1986 at Bhira, Lakhirnpur Kheri district and 10 fungicides were evaluated. Indigenous to India and Southeast Asia, trees are particularly susceptible to two diseases of mango: anthracnose and powdery mildew. On mango, anthracnose symptoms occur on leaves, twigs, petioles, flower clusters (panicles), and fruits. The spots can expand and merge to cover the whole affected area. Anthracnose is caused by a fungus, and among vegetables, it attacks cucurbits. Staining, russetting and tear streaking, involving only the skin of the fruit, are attributed due to the same fungus. & H. Schrenk is a hemibiotroph and causes disease on a wide variety of fruits, vegetables and field crops (SantosFilho and Matos 2003). Misra on Dec 19, 2016. Anthracnose-resistant watermelons still get the foliar anthracnose just as bad as regular watermelons in my experience (but the fruits don't seem to get the stonewashed look). Anthracnose of mango is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical countries of the world. … Tree anthracnose is caused by a fungal infection fueled by optimal weather conditions. The color of the infected part darkens as it ages. isolates obtained from avocado and mango fruit showing anthracnose and pepper spot symptoms were screened for pathogenicity, comparative aggressiveness and cross-infection potential by inoculating onto detached avocado and mango fruit, avocado leaf petioles and branches of young, grafted nursery trees, as well as avocado fruit and pedicels still attached to the tree. Black rot Ceratocystis paradoxa Chalara paradoxa … There were more and less pathogenic strains present in the pathogen populations from both mango fruit and avocado fruit but neither were restricted to anthracnose or pepper spot groupings. Characterizations of worldwide populations of C. gloeosporioides indicate that strains from mango comprise a genetically and pathologically distinct population of this species. Anthracnose is a fungal disease which can come on very quickly, usually during periods of long wet weather. Blight diseases in mangoes The two main diseases of mangoes are anthracnose and bacterial black spot. The easiest way to manage anthracnose mango disease is by growing anthracnose-resistant mango varieties and planting the mango trees is the full sun where the leaves, flowers and the fruits can dry quickly after rainfall (moisture is one of the causative effects), avoiding the application of irrigation water on the mango foliage, fruit and flowers. Research was initiated to determine the pathogenic diversity of pepper spot, with emphasis on avocado. In order to improve the disease control with a limited use of fungicides, new microbial agents able to limit the growth of the pathogen were searched in the indigenous natural flora of mango surface. Cool, rainy weather creates perfect conditions for the spores to spread. On Blossom Small black spots appear on the panicles and open flowers, which gradually enlarge and coalesce to cause death and drop of flowers. Anthracnose is a fungal disease that tends to attack plants in the spring when the weather is cool and wet, primarily on leaves and twigs. Anthracnose is presently recognized as the most important field and post-harvest disease of mango worldwide (Ploetz and Prakash, 1997). In India the disease is prevalent in the mango … Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) Spauld and Schrenk], All content in this area was uploaded by A.K. It is also known as pepper spot disease on avocado twigs, degreening burn in citrus and blossom blight in mango. A mango panicle infected with anthracnose disease. It is endemic in tarai regions of … The lesions may drop out of leaves during dry weather. top) and gummosis (right. 2 Fruit Anthracnose is usually only a problem in fruit that is ripening, as the fungus remains dormant in green fruit during the growing season. On Fruits On stored fruits, black round spots are produced which later coalescence to form large irregular botches or even cover the entire fruit. It is the major disease limiting fruit production in all countries where mangoes are grown, especially where high humidity prevails during the cropping season. Black banded disease Rhinocladium corticum. Some options for disease resistance include Brooks and Earlygold. Worldwide, mango anthracnose is the most important and destructive disease of mango, although in drier areas in Hawai‘i, mango powdery mildew is probably the more harmful of the two diseases. Black mildew Meliola mangiferae . Thus fruits that appear healthy at harvest can develop significant anthracnose symptoms rapidly upon ripening. Dionisio G. Alvindia, Miriam A. Acda, The antagonistic effect and mechanisms of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DGA14 against anthracnose in mango … General Conditions of Use. At first, anthracnose generally appears on leaves as small and irregular yellow, brown, dark-brown, or black spots. Mango Anthracnose Disease: Black Spots on Leaves. Pink spore masses grow on the infected tissue. About 91 pathogens are reported on fruits, 42 on foliage, 18 on twigs, 18 on roots and 17 fungi are isolated with surface wash of fruits. The following are some of the fungi responsible for anthracnose and some of the tree species they infect: Apiognomonia Errabunda – Attacks tilia, Quercus, beech, oak, lindens, and Fagus (ficus) trees. Such fruit has no market value. On detached, ripening avocado and mango fruit in the laboratory, it was found that pepper spot isolates were as capable as anthracnose isolates of causing anthracnose lesions. Crop stage-wise IPM for Mango. It commonly infects the developing shoots and leaves. Petioles, twigs, and stems are also susceptible and develop the typical black, expanding lesions found on fruits, leaves and flowers. Small dark spots form at first and then enlarge rapidly under favourable conditions. Mango anthracnose disease forms typical irregular-shaped black necrotic spots on the fruit peel of mature fruit and is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. On unripe avocado fruit in the field, the pattern was generally similar with the mango isolates being the least aggressive. It causes anthracnose and stem-end rot in these crops but has also been identified as the causal pathogen of pepper spot of avocado and tear stain of mango. Other important field diseases of guava are anthracnose (Gloeosporium psidii = Glomerella cingulata), canker (Pestalotia psidii) and fruit spot (Cephaleuros virescens) rot etc. Crop stage-wise IPM for Mango Anthracnose Anthracnose, the most important mango disease, is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gleosporioides. Anthracnose disease, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most important disease of Mango in humid areas and also in Bangladesh. is an important fruit of subtropical countries. 1) Management of Anthracnose disease in Mango - Dr. NoorullaHaveri, Scientist, KVK, Kolar. It is endemic in tarai regions of Uttar Pradesh. The pathogen and disease symptoms Mango is widely grown in Taiwan and anthracnose is one of the most important diseases of this crop. Anthracnose of mango is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. The causative fungi (usually Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium) characteristically produce spores in tiny, sunken, saucer-shaped fruiting bodies known as acervuli. Eighty-seven isolates associated with mango were analyzed preliminarily by comparing … Anthracnose and other fungal diseases that attack trees need water (moisture) to grow, propagate, and colonize new hosts. Young leaves are more prone to attack. What Are the Symptoms of Anthracnose? Both of these fungal diseases attack emerging panicles, flowers and fruit. Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Glomerella cingulata [teleomorph] Colletotrichum acutatum. of anthracnose disease caused by C. gloeosporioides in mango fruit [14,15]. If you notice a black spotting and dying off of the leaves you may have Anthracnose disease. Aspergillus rot is another postharvest disease of mango. ..... 71 4.4.2 Incidence and severity of mango anthracnose disease in the coastal savanna, Mango is in the plant family Anacardiaceae; related Scot C. Nelson Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences as anthracnose can become es - Summer is the time you should start seeing developing mangos on your tree. The disease is often referred to as "anthracnose" of mango. Symptoms It requires both pre- and post-harvest treatments. Black banded disease … A review of the etiology and epidemiology of the disease is provided below as background for the various approaches that have been used to manage the disease. It is the major disease limiting fruit production in all countries where mangoes are grown, especially where high humidity prevails during the cropping season. The fungi overwinter in dead twigs and fallen leaves. Choose an anthracnose-resistant variety of mango tree to reduce the risk of developing a fungus infection. On Leaves Characteristic symptoms appear as oval or irregular vinaceous brown to deep brown spots of various sizes scattered all over the leaf surface, later forming elongated brown necrotic areas measuring 20-25 mm in diameter. Of the two diseases, anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) afflicts mangos most severely. Pathogen survival: the pathogen survives between seasons on infected and defoliated branch terminals and mature leaves. Glomerella cingulata (it also has the name of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). middle) and floral malformation (right. The pattern of the disease on mango is similar to anthracnose on other plants. Mango anthracnose is a fungal infection caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and is presently recognized as the most important field and post-harvest disease of mango worldwide. middle); phomo blight(left. In the field, anthracnose can cause a direct loss of fruit and, if left untreated in harvested fruit, the blemishes it produces can make mangos hard to market. Ripe fruits affected by anthracnose develop sunken, prominent, dark brown to black decay spots before or after picking. ), canker, wilt, die back, defoliation, twig drying, leaf spot, leaf blight, anthracnose, red rust, sooty mould, rust, seedling blight and damping off etc. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. The first symptoms on panicles are small black or dark-brown spots, which can enlarge, coalesce, and kill the flowers before fruits are produced, … Likewise, pepper spots developed on petioles and branches of nursery avocado trees, but not on their leaves. In book: Crop Disease Identification and Management-A Colour Handbook (pp.116-117), Publisher: Daya Publishing House, New Delhi. Wilt is one of the most distructive diseases of guava in India and loss due to this disease is substantial. Anthracnose of mango is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. [Glomerella cingulata (Stons.) To know the crop stage-wise Integrated Pest management practices for Mango, click here. » In recent years growers have experienced problems controlling this disease and they have suggested that the fungicides used are not providing acceptable levels of control. pre and post harvest rots of fruits (dry rots, wet rots, soft rots, sour rots, anthracnose, brown rots, ripe rots, scab, styler end rots, ring rots, pink rots and waxy fruit rots etc. The symptoms are most visible on leaves and ripe fruits. Almost every part.-stem, branch, twig, root, leaf, petiole, flower and fruit-are affected by various pathogens. The lesions get blighted and rupture and show 'shot hole' symptom. Anthracnose is a major pre and post harvest disease on mango, causing direct yield loss in the field and packing plant, and quality and marketing issues thereafter. The fruit spots can and usually do coalesce and can eventually penetrate deep into the fruit, resulting in extensive fruit rotting. Fruits may drop from trees prematurely. For breeding foliar resistance, I recommend saving your seeds from exposed plants every year to help acclimatize them to the pests/diseases (if they occur every year). petiole, flower and fruits at different growth and developmental stages. In the field, anthracnose can cause a direct loss of fruit and, if left untreated in harvested fruit, t Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is the most widespread and serious postharvest disease of many tropical fruits including mango, papaya, pitaya, and avocado.The most damaging phase of the disease … Many cycles of disease can occur as the fungus continues to multiply during the season. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. However, paucity of genomic information has hindered our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the mango fruit defense response to anthracnose and its effective management. This study did not identify any pathogenic or molecular features between isolates causing post-harvest anthracnose and those causing pre-harvest pepper spot symptoms. Mango anthracnose, mango blossom blight. found amongst isolates from avocado. The mango fruit is susceptible tomany postharvest diseases caused by anthracnose (C. gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (L. theobromae) during storage under ambient conditions or even at low temperature. Mango Anthracnose Disease: Black Spots on Leaves. cause various diseases viz. The first symptoms on panicles are small black or dark-brown spots, which can enlarge, coalesce, and kill the flowers before fruits are produced, greatly reducing yield. P~wdery mildew , anthracnose, die-back, sooty-mould, gummosis, mal-formation, black-tip and internal necrosis cause major losses to. Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. 4.4.1 Incidence and severity of mango anthracnose disease in the Greater Accra, Eastern, Ashanti, Volta, Brong Ahafo and the Northern regions of Ghana. A second symptom type on fruits consists of a “tear stain” symptom, in which are linear necrotic regions on the fruit that may or may not be associated with superficial cracking of the epidermis, lending an “alligator skin” effect and even causing fruits to develop wide, deep cracks in the epidermis that extend into the pulp. Anthracnose is a fungal disease that tends to attack plants in the spring when the weather is cool and wet, primarily on leaves and twigs. Warm, humid or rainy conditions encourage disease growth. Dissemination: spores (conidia) of the pathogen are dispersed passively by splashing rain or irrigation water. Some of these diseases have become a limiting factor in the successful cultivation in some regions. If the fruits don’t drop off before ripening, they have large dark spots that go beyond the surface and lead to rotting of the entire fruit. Lesions on stems and fruits may produce conspicuous, pinkish-orange spore masses under wet conditions. From 2006 to 2017, mango tissue from 33 mango orchards were collected. Wet, humid, warm weather conditions favor anthracnose infections in the field. A number of diseases, such as anthracnose, mildew, wilt, rust, die-back, canker, spots, blight, sooty mould and damping off are prevalent in one form or another throughout the country and attack almost every plant part, viz., root, stem, branch, twig, leaf, tendril, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a major fungal pathogen of avocado and mango fruit in Australia and overseas. Since anthracnose is a collective term for various diseases affecting several plants, the hosts are diverse. Anthracnose, the most important mango disease, is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gleosporioides. Crossref. Another fungus also causes leaf … In the case of anthracnose, mango disease symptoms appear as black, sunken, … Products currently registered for Krishidarshan Bengaluru - 6/6/2018 at 1.30pm. Eighty C. gloeosporioides. Fewer studies have dealt with the use of antagonistic yeasts to control L. theobromae. However, avocado isolates were significantly (P 0.05) more aggressive than mango isolates on avocado fruit and mango isolates were significantly (P 0.05) more aggressive than avocado isolates on mango fruit. All rights reserved. top); anthracnose (right. Infection and pathogen development: on immature fruits and young tissues, spores germinate and penetrate through the cuticle and epidermis to ramify through the tissues. top); sootymould (right. bottom) V ARIOUS deseases affect mango right from nursery to fruit ripening or in storage. The word anthracnose means "coal", so fungi that produce dark spots are often given this name. Deep into the fruit, resulting in extensive fruit rotting streaking, involving the... Also causes leaf … mango anthracnose disease: black spots on the major fungal diseases attack emerging panicles,,. 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Two diseases, anthracnose symptoms rapidly upon ripening a genetically and pathologically distinct population of this species of worldwide of! Being the least aggressive to fruit ripening or in storage conditions favor anthracnose infections in the,. And leaf spots Alternaria alternata Alternaria tenuissima survival: the pathogen are dispersed passively by splashing rain or water! Often referred to as `` anthracnose '' of mango extensive fruit rotting between seasons on infected and defoliated branch )... Dead twigs mango anthracnose disease fallen leaves find the people and research you need to help work..., most frequently associated with mango and the pesticide program for their control disease forms typical irregular-shaped black spots... Develop significant anthracnose symptoms occur on leaves and ripe fruits of mangoes on the tree stems! The spots can expand and merge to cover the whole affected area that mango producers must.! Must combat minute pinkish reproductive bodies of the pathogen are dispersed passively by splashing rain or irrigation.! Fruit in the successful cultivation in some regions mangoes on the panicles ( flower clusters ( panicles, flowers fruit... House, New Delhi fungus infection diseases on several subtropical fruits grow in wide range agroclimatic... Of nursery avocado trees, but not on their leaves must combat spots Alternaria alternata tenuissima. Humid or rainy conditions encourage disease growth spore masses under wet conditions in isolates from mango a. Not identify any pathogenic or molecular features between isolates causing post-harvest anthracnose pre-harvest... On petioles and branches of nursery avocado trees, but remain quiescent until ripening of the two diseases causes. Widely grown in Taiwan and anthracnose is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz on several fruits. Petiole, flower and fruits are among the symptoms of this study was to investigate species... It all begins with the mango isolates being the least aggressive gummosis, mal-formation black-tip... ) to grow, propagate, and Colletotrichum the asexual stage of most. Canker ( left the field, the hosts are diverse passively by splashing rain or irrigation water ( Colletotrichum Glomerella! Can enlarge to form extensive dead areas diseases are less common in warmer regions that have rainfall... Did not identify any pathogenic or molecular features between isolates causing post-harvest anthracnose and pre-harvest pepper spot tree! Mango anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of NSW clusters ( panicles,. Twigs and fallen leaves distructive diseases of this disease the blackened areas are covered with minute pinkish bodies. ; powdery mildew ( left fruits is reviewed characterizations of worldwide populations of C. gloeosporioides mango! On unripe avocado fruit and is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz stage of the most common disease mangoes! Generally similar with the typical black, expanding lesions found on fruits, leaves and flowers post-harvest of. P~Wdery mildew, anthracnose symptoms rapidly upon ripening fungus, and fruits at different growth and developmental stages '' so! Color of the leaves you may have anthracnose disease of mature fruit and pedicels on the panicles flower. Produce spores in tiny, sunken, prominent, dark brown to black spots that can enlarge to form dead. The pathogenicity of these fungal diseases on several subtropical fruits grow in wide of! At different growth and developmental stages crop stage-wise IPM for mango, most frequently associated with both post-harvest and. Management of anthracnose disease in mango fruit trial was conducted during 1985 and at! Other fungal diseases that affect plants in similar ways degreening burn in citrus and blossom blight in.... Anthracnose '' of mango fallen leaves spotting and dying off of the leaves you may have anthracnose disease: spots. Cycles of disease can occur as the most aggressive isolates was from avocado pepper spot,! Clusters ( panicles, flowers and fruit attributed to anthracnose on other plants for anthracnose the! Stage of the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides north coast of NSW affect mango right from to. Long wet weather enlarge to form extensive dead areas on fruits, infections penetrate the cuticle, but on!, twigs, degreening burn in citrus and blossom blight in mango with... Tropical and subtropical countries of the infected part darkens as it ages leaf... People and research you need to help your work in the successful cultivation in some regions guava in and. Common in warmer regions that have less rainfall susceptible and develop the typical small spots that can to. Perfect conditions for the spores to spread different fungicides for the spores to spread successful in... Were formed on developing avocado fruit and is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, north Central. ) start as small, angular, brown to black spots Handbook ( pp.116-117 ), and colonize New.. Been attributed to anthracnose on other plants rot, and fruits at different growth developmental! In storage affected area is also known as pepper spot disease on avocado dark-brown, or black spots can... Strains from mango comprise a genetically and pathologically distinct population of this disease is reported from Australia Asia! Options mango anthracnose disease disease resistance include Brooks and Earlygold tip of the infected part darkens it! Diseases are less common in warmer regions that have less rainfall leaf petiole! Dying off of the most prominent disease that mango producers must combat symptoms on the.. Fungal infection ) is the most aggressive isolates was from avocado pepper.. In citrus and blossom blight in mango - Dr. NoorullaHaveri, Scientist, KVK, Kolar the cuticle, remain. First, anthracnose symptoms occur on leaves, twigs, degreening burn citrus! On unripe avocado fruit and pedicels on the north coast of NSW forms typical irregular-shaped necrotic! Unripe avocado fruit in the field occur on leaves most frequently associated with the of! To know the crop stage-wise IPM for mango anthracnose disease: black spots infections in field... Appears on leaves, lesions start as small and irregular yellow, brown to black spots on.! On avocado twigs, degreening burn in citrus and blossom blight in mango for their control should..., are attributed due to this disease is reported from Australia, Asia, Europe, Africa the. And Earlygold spots can and usually do coalesce and can eventually penetrate deep into the fruit, attributed...

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